Func vs Action

What the Func, Action? Func vs Action

What’s the difference between Func and Action in C#? This is a common C# interview question. Let’s find it out!

The difference between Func and Action is the return type of the method they point to. Action references a method with no return type. And, Func references a method with a return type.

What are delegates?

It all starts with delegates.

A delegate is a pointer to a method with some input parameters and possibly a return type.

In other words, a delegate is a variable that references a method that has a given signature. Both, Func and Action are built-in delegate types.

Delegates are helpful when working with higher-order functions. This is, functions that take functions as parameter or return another function. For example, JavaScript callbacks and Python decorators are high-order functions.

Now that it’s clear what delegates are, let’s see some Func and Action declarations. For example,

When declaring Func references, the last type inside <> tells the return type of the method being referenced. For Action references, since they don’t have a return type, the types inside <> show the input parameter types.

What the Func, Action?
Let's get Funcy. Photo by Greyson Joralemon on Unsplash

How to use Func and Action in a method?

You have already used Func, if you have used LINQ. But, in general, we use them as lambda expressions.

A lambda expression is a shorthand notation to write a method without a name, only with the body and the parameter list.

For example, let’s find the employees who have worked for more than ten years.

var allEmployees = new List<Employee> { /* Some employees here */ };

Func<Employee, bool> p = (t) => t.YearsWorked >= 10;

Or just simply

allEmployees.Where(t => t.YearsWorked >= 10);

How to declare a method that receives Func or Action?

To a declare a method that uses Func or Action as an input parameter, you have to use them like regular paramaters. Then, you have to either call Invoke on it or put parenthesis next to the name passing the appropiate parameters.

Let’s see an example of a method that uses Func.

public Employee DoSomething(Func<Employee, string> func)
    var employee = new Employee();
    // var result = func.Invoke(employee);
    // Or simply
    var result = func(employee);
    //           ^^^^^
    // Do something with the result here

    return employee;

A real-world example

Func and Action are great as small factory methods. They can be used in helper or utility methods to separete business logic from generic code.

Let’s see Func in action! Here is an example of Func from Insight.Database to create a ReliableConnection, a database connection that automatically retries on certain errors.

The ExecuteWithRetry method retries things and uses Func for the operation to retry. Some of the code has been removed for brevity.

public class RetryStrategy : IRetryStrategy
    public TResult ExecuteWithRetry<TResult>(IDbCommand commandContext, Func<TResult> func)
        int attempt = 0;
        TimeSpan delay = MinBackOff;

        while (true)
                return func();
                //     ^^^^^
            catch (Exception ex)
                // if it's not a transient error, then let it go
                if (!IsTransientException(ex))

                // if the number of retries has been exceeded then throw
                if (attempt >= MaxRetryCount)
                // some lines removed for brevity

                // wait before retrying the command
                // unless this is the first attempt or first retry is disabled
                if (attempt > 0 || !FastFirstRetry)

                    // update the increment
                    delay += IncrementalBackOff;
                    if (delay > MaxBackOff)
                        delay = MaxBackOff;

                // increment the attempt

And, this is how to use the method to open a connection.

public class ReliableConnection : DbConnectionWrapper
    public override void Open()
        RetryStrategy.ExecuteWithRetry(null, () => { InnerConnection.Open(); return true; });

Voilà! That’s the difference between Func and Action. Remember that they only represent the signature of a method. You can define or pass around the body later.

If you want to know more about LINQ, check my quick guide to LINQ. All you need to know about LINQ in 15 minutes or less. To learn how to use Insight.Database, check how to create a CRUD API with ASP.NET Core and Insight.Database.

Happy Funcy time!